Glossary of Common Industry Terms

“ Not sure of what it means? Use the Glossary for a quick understanding of the common industry terms used on this website. ”

Area Station

The delivery point where Gas Malaysia's distribution pipeline gas pressure of 60 psi is reduced to 0.43 psi before being supplied to residential customers.

Bar

Unit of pressure of one million dynes square centimetre.

BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion. A condition whereby an LPG cylinder loses its ability to contain the LPG vapour due to defects. This usually results in a massive explosion.

btu - British Thermal Unit

A unit of measurement for energy, which represents the amount of heat, that is necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

Butane (C4H10)

A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from Natural Gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutene and normal butane and is designated for commercial butane.

Calorific Value (CV)

Quantity of heat liberated on the complete combustion of unit weight or unit volume of fuel.

Celsius

A thermometric scale in which the melting point of ice is zero and the boiling point of water is 100º above zero.

CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons

A gaseous compound used for cooling but is being rapidly replaced by new materials because its effect on the atmosphere has produced ozone depletion.

City Gate Station

This station is used for regulating and metering purposes and is located just after a tee valve off the Peninsular Gas Utilisation pipeline owned by Petronas. This in turn links up to Gas Malaysia's gas pipeline distribution system where the gas pressure of 500 - 800 psi is reduced to 260 psi. It also acts as a Custody Transfer Point for Natural Gas between Petronas Gas Bhd and Gas Malaysia.

Combined Heat and Power

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat energy from a single fuel source.

Cubic Foot

A unit of measurement for volume. It represents an area one foot long, by one foot wide, by one foot deep. Natural Gas is measured in cubic feet, but the measurements are usually expressed in terms of Bcf (billion cubic feet), Tcf (trillion cubic feet) or mmcf (million cubic feet).

Distributed Generation

Distributed Generation (DG) is the use of small-scale power generation technologies located close to the load being served. It allows industries to produce their own electricity with a gas driven cogeneration facility within their premises.

District Station

A regulating station where the feeder pipeline gas pressure is reduced from 260 psi to 60 psi before it enters Gas Malaysia's distribution pipeline.

Economic Planning Unit (EPU)

The EPU is a body that advises the Government on the economic issues. It formulates policies and strategies for socio-economic development, initiates and undertakes necessary economic research, manages the Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme and serves as the secretariat to the Foreign Investment Committee.

Fahrenheit

A thermometric scale in which the melting point of ice is 32º above zero and the boiling point of water is 212º above zero.

Gas Supply Act 1993

An Act to provide for the appointment and functions of a Director General of Gas Supply, the licensing of the supply of gas to consumers through pipelines and related matters, the supply of gas at reasonable prices, the control of gas supply pipelines, installations and appliances with respect to matters relating to safety of persons and for purposes connected therewith.

Hydrocarbon

An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are often found in petroleum products, Natural Gas, and coals.

Kiln

A furnace or oven often used for burning, baking or drying. Also used for calcining lime and firing pottery.

Lithology

Lithology is the study of rocks. It is important for exploration and drilling crews to have an understanding of lithology as it relates to the production of gas and oil.

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG (primarily methane) is a form of Natural Gas that has been cooled to approximately - 260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. One volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th volume of Natural Gas at a stove burner tip. LNG is by nature odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic.

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, mainly propane and butane that change into liquid form under moderate pressure. LPG is commonly used as a fuel in homes for cooking and heating and as a transportation fuel. It is normally created as a by-product of petroleum refining and from the production of Natural Gas.

m3 - Cubic Metre

The unit of volume in the International System of Unit. A volume of 1 m3 is equal to 1,000,000 centimeters cubed (106 cm3).

mmcf - million Cubic Feet

mmcf stands for one million cubic feet. It is a unit of measurement for gas volume that is more commonly used in the low volume sectors of the gas industry.

Mercaptan

A chemical that has a sulphur-like smell used as an additive for Natural Gas, which is supplied for commercial use. It produces a distinctly unpleasant smell (likened to that of a rotten egg) and serves as a safety feature that allows gas leakages to be detected.

Methane

Methane, commonly known as Natural Gas (or CH4), is the most common hydrocarbon gas. It is colourless, naturally odourless and burns efficiently without many by products.

MMBtu - Million British Thermal Units

An energy measurement that measures a unit of heat. A unit of heat equals to 1,000,000 btu (1 MMBtu).

Natural Gas

An odourless, colourless, gaseous hydrocarbon mixture made up of methane (CH4) and a small percentage of other light hydrocarbons. Normally, Natural Gas is found underground and it is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. After processing, the gas is compressed and distributed through pipelines.

NGV - Natural Gas Vehicle

Natural Gas vehicles are one that is powered by Natural Gas; either in compressed or liquefied form, rather than the traditional petrol or diesel fuel. These vehicles offer an extremely clean, safe and efficient alternative to traditional transportation. In Malaysia, this trend is on the rise, and is seen as a common option for many city taxis. Refuelling stations are also on the rise, and are mainly operated by Petronas Dagangan Berhad.

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994

An Act to make further provisions for securing the safety, health and welfare of persons at work; for protecting others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at work; to establish the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, and for matters connected therewith.

Odoriser Station

An odorant dispensing facility located immediately after the City Gate Station. This is where an odorant such as mercaptan is injected into the gas to odorise it so as to meet safety requirements before being supplied for commercial use.

Peninsular Gas Utilisation (PGU) Project

The PGU Project is a 1,162 kilometre trans-peninsular gas transmission pipeline system. The gas reserves offshore Peninsular Malaysia are dedicated to the PGU Project while that offshore Sarawak are committed for Sarawak's domestic gas projects and LNG exports.

Polyethylene (PE) Pipe

The type of pipe used for distribution and low pressure lines within the Natural Gas distribution network. The size usually varies between 63mm to 180mm in diameter and is designed to handle pressures of up to 400kPa.

Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge (psig)

The gauge pressure measured by the number of pound force on an area of 1 square inch.

Regulating Station

The delivery point where Gas Malaysia's distribution pipeline gas pressure of 60 psi is reduced to 4.3 psi before being supplied to commercial customers.

SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Remote controlled equipment used by Gas Malaysia to operate gas systems. These computerised networks can acquire immediate data concerning flow, pressure or volumes of gas, as well as control different aspects of the gas transmission throughout a pipeline system.

Service Station

A station with gas measurement and pressure-regulating facilities where gas is received directly from the gas pipeline distribution system and which then delivers the gas through the customer's internal piping system to the gas appliances.

Three Dimensional (3-D) Seismic

The three dimensional seismic allows producers to see into the earth's crust to find promising formations for retrieval of fossil fuel. Taking advantage of highly advanced supercomputers, geologists process millions of pieces of data to generate a detailed, three-dimensional image of underground structures. They can rotate and slice these models for closer examination, searching for evidence of hydrocarbons. Using 3-D seismic, drilling has become more precise and the risk of costly dry holes has diminished.

Work Permit

All third party works and activities near Gas Malaysia's installations require official authorisation by means of a Work Permit. It is issued on a day-to-day, per location and per activity basis.

Gas Malaysia Berhad
MMC Group

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